What is neurological surgery?
Neurological surgery, also called neurosurgery, is the branch of medicine that provides both operative and nonoperative management of disorders that affect the central and peripheral nervous systems, including their supportive structures and vascular supply, and the operative management of pain.
Neurological surgery encompasses disorders of the brain, spine, and nerves, including:
The extracranial and intracranial carotid and vertebral arteries
Intracranial aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, and other vascular malformations of the brain and spinal cord
Disorders of the pituitary gland, such as prolactinomas
Tumors in and around the brain, such as gliomas, meningiomas, metastasis and acoustic neuromas
Infections such as pus collections in the spinal area (epidural abscess) or in the cranial area (brain abscess)
Disorders of the spinal cord, meninges, and spine, including those that may need treatment by removing or replacing intervertebral discs, spinal fusion with or without instrumentation
Disorders of the peripheral nerves, such as carpal tunnel or entrapped ulnar nerve at the elbow
Disorders of the autonomic nervous system, such as hyperhidrosis
Disorders of movement, such as Parkinson disease, tremor and spasticity
Pain disorders, such as failed back syndrome or trigeminal neuralgia
Trauma, such as acute brain or spine injury or chronic subdural hematomas
Epilepsy not responsive to medical treatment
Disorders of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) such as hydrocephalus and normal pressure hydrocephalus
Trauma of the brain or the spine and spinal cord, and post-traumatic conditions such as post-concussion syndrome
Functional disorders such as Tourette syndrome and depression
Inherited diseases such as neurofibromatosis (NF1 and NF2) and tuberous sclerosis.
Pediatric and adolescent diseases such as Chiari malformation, craniosynostosis, scoliosis and tethered cord syndrome
Intensive care unit (ICU) issues such brain swelling and coma
The surgeon who specializes in neurological surgery is called a neurosurgeon or neurological surgeon.